Part 5 The personal project

Reflection on Part 5

Demonstration of technical and visual skills

I have continued to experiment with different media – in this part I tried different types of graphite and would like to explore this more in future. I also experimented with oil pastel on mylar and started to use gouache for the first time. Finally I settled on using soft pastel and charcoal for my final pieces.

It was apparent from studying the works of Frank Auerbach, David Bomberg, Dennis Creffield, John Virtue and Leon Kossoff that observational skills are key to the success of their work – sketching obsessively over a long period of time – on location, in the street (or rooftop) to use as a final work, or as a study for much larger painting projects. I did not feel comfortable in taking an easel and large board outside in the street – which may have required a second person with me for safety/security – so stuck to making sketches in my A5 sketchbook and a sketchpad – transferring these to larger sheets at home.

My use of the sketchbook has been limited during this course and for Part 5 I have filled a sketchpad with ideas, experiments and location sketches – nearly all related to the Urban Landscape.

My experience of drawing outside particularly with moving traffic and people was interesting and enjoyable – I found myself drawing blind to capture as much as possible:

The above was an experiment in drawing moving traffic – it is interesting how accurate you can become by practice.  This is also a good exercise for brain/hand coordination.

In my final pieces which have been influenced by the work of Leon Kossoff, I have included a great deal of information, detail and also movement – movement in line and subjects, such as people or traffic. I believe that this was successful and captured the atmosphere and colour of each chosen site.  One of the comments during the coursework was if something did not seem to work – keep drawing – this really helped me, as these final pieces required patience and a building up of layers of colour, of detail and tonal variation.

Kossoff’s work includes many fleeting details – sometimes blindly drawn, often difficult to discover but still there in his drawings and paintings. I have also included these type of details in my work – moving cars and people in the main avenue, people standing at the bus stop in the terminal and people chatting, reading and moving about in the main square.

My compositions were very similar – in a wide-angle triangular format that relied on diagonals and employed the use of foreground, middleground and background details to assist the viewer in moving around the drawing.  I was conscious of the viewer as I constructed the drawing to include as much detail and interest as possible without overworking the drawing.

After experimenting with various supports – both smooth and textured and the relationship between line/mark making with these supports, I chose to use a Fabriano paper for the final works with a medium grain to be able to hold more layers of pastel and to allow for a more expressive broken line in both pastel and charcoal. This choice was a good one – this paper being excellent for pastel work. I did try a Strathmore Bristol heavyweight paper with a smoother vellum surface which could also have worked but not exactly what I was looking for on this occasion – When pressing the pastel and charcoal hard on this paper, the mark-making was without grain – with a lighter touch grain is apparent.

Quality of outcome

I was very careful during this final part of the course to heed the advice and guidance giving both by my tutor and the course content in general with respect conceptualisation of thoughts, communication of ideas and application of knowledge gained throughout Drawing 1.  This I believe I have achieved and in particular demonstrated in arriving at my Main Avenue drawing – with several sketches, different ideas – relating these ideas and outcomes to my original concept/research of Leon Kossoff’s work – and incorporating improvements and a little of my own voice in the final outcome.

Leon Kossoff’s work encompasses a lifetime’s work in drawing and painting his immediate environment in all weathers and different times of day – this was obvious in his masterly use of line/brushwork in capturing the atmosphere, movement and details of his subject matter.  Appreciating this after studying for this part, I will take this forward into my work for POP1.

The most successful drawing in my series of three was the Main Square because of the range of tones, colour, detail and atmosphere captured in the scene.

Demonstration of creativity

During Drawing 1, I have been criticised for overusing line to describe form, where greater tonal contrast would have been more effective.  For me therefore using Leon Kossoff was a risk, as he uses heavy line/mark-making in his drawings – particularly in his Arnold Circus drawings.

In taking this risk, I have demonstrated that it is possible to combine a tonal background with expressive line – and that the building up of layers of dark and light colours/tones to describe form coupled with expressive line can work.

I am beginning to have a personal voice in both style and in subject matter – this personal voice has a long way to go yet and I intend to continue with OCA studies to continue improving and building on everything that I have achieved so far.

Context reflection

During the course of Part 5, I visited 4 galleries, 3 in London and 1 in Santiago. In the next few weeks I have an opportunity to visit galleries in Taipei and Shanghai. I have reflected on 4 important exhibitions within the galleries visited and have also watched several important art videos on YouTube – one memorable video was on the work of Tawara Yusaku – a Japanese artist who worked for the latter part of his life exclusively in ink.  I hope to see similar ink and watercolour works in Taipei and Shanghai.

Tawara Yusaku

My research into artists working in the urban environment was limited to those who either worked/studied together or whose work was influencial upon each other – they have been mentioned before but I believe that David Bomberg was a catalyst for all of them and it was a shame that he was not recognised sufficiently during his lifetime.

My interest in the work of Leon Kossoff (and Frank Auerbach) can be further developed during POP1 – in particular I have an interest in gouache and watercolour – a medium that Kossoff used often, in addition to his work on the human figure and portraiture.

My learning log has improved in that it is starting to be much clearer in demonstrating my thought processes and journey to final pieces.

In POP1 I intend to separate the learning log from the coursework/exercises and have a separate section in the blog for a sketchbook/sketchpad gallery.  The idea is to be much clearer in my working processes/experimentation.  It is also my intention to change the format of the blog into a fully working website.


In my artist’s statement which I used as the basis for my work on the Urban environment:

Combine line, space and form to create depth, movement and atmosphere in the urban landscape exploring a wide range of media to include graphite, charcoal, pastel, ink, markers, crayons, water-based paints, and collage.

The final work will be a series of up to 5 urban landscapes in a chosen media or use of mixed media.

I believe that I have fully met the brief that I set for myself – I feel limited only by time and want to move forward on to the next module of the OCA Painting course.  I feel that I have only scratched the surface of what can be achieved with drawing and drawing techniques.

In my 3 final pieces I created unique spaces with their own lighting, movement and mood. This was created using colour, incorporating detail/interest and incorporating greater depth by the use of tonal contrast and complementary colours.

I chose dry media for these final works but in POP1 I hope to have the opportunity to explore wet media in the Urban Landscape on a variety of supports.

I could have included 5 works for Assignment 5 but limited it to a series of just 3 as these were my strongest pieces.

Assignment 5 – The Urban Landscape

Assignment 5 – The Urban Landscape

Drawing 1 has been quite a journey for me and I have enjoyed every part of it.

Even from my early beginnings in painting at the age of 14 years old I was interested in movement and people, cultures and history – something that was with me during this end part of Drawing 1.

For this part of the course I knew that the Urban Landscape would be a challenge for many different reasons:

  • I would have to sketch outside
  • The outside environment – particularly in the City – in Chile can be dangerous with beggars, drunks and thieves ever-present
  • I wanted to find or at least start to find a voice
  • I wanted to draw in a series
  • I wanted to capture the spirit and movement of the chosen places

Among the subjects chosen for this series were the cemetary, the marketplace, the main avenue, the bus terminal and the main square.

Along the journey I also explored ideas from John Virtue, David Bomberg, Frank Auerbach, Dennis Creffield – however my greatest inspiration for these works were from Leon Kossoff’s drawings and paintings of London Landscapes.

In particular I was intrigued by his Arnold Circus drawings from 2012. They are like a documentary of the lives and people who use this area daily to walk their dogs, take their children to school, pass by on their way to work, feed the pigeons, rest, sleep off too much drink? – also there is a record of blustery days, calm days, trees with and without leaves, traffic and bicycles – Kossoff must have produced a huge amount of drawings throughout the year to record such a range of work.  Something that was not possible for me over the course of just two months working on this project.

His use of charcoal over soft pastel was interesting as was his use of broken – fast drawn (possibly blind) line work.

My final works for this assignment are a selection of what I believe to be the most successful drawings taken from Part 5.

I dismissed my Cemetary drawing as not being strong enough and for not using sufficent depth of tone/interest. I also completed several studies in graphite, and on mylar but in the end I was more attracted to the use of charcoal upon a tonal background of soft pastel.

In all of Leon Kossoff’s Arnold Circus drawings he used a portrait format, however because of the wide open spaces in my city I chose a wide angle landscape format – nearly the same size (approx. 60x30cm).

My first successful drawing was the result of several visits to the same site within the Main Avenue. Within some of my sketches of this area there were elements of blind drawing – which I feel Kossoff included in his work.

The Main Avenue, Alameda, Rancagua. Soft pastel and charcoal on grey tinted Fabriano Tiziano paper (160g)

The main avenue was drawn around midday in what is now our autumn – with the sun quite low.  With the tall trees there is a great deal of shade – like Arnold Circus with surrounding buildings (and low cloud) dulling the light.

The next drawing of the main square was drawn in the morning with the sun rising to left of the view.  The pink building and centre of the square were in full sun with the trees giving some quite heavy contrasting shade.

Whilst there are several inaccuracies in perspective and scale, the atmosphere, colour and light are a good representation of the scene. I also felt that I had shaken off some of the influence from Kossoff and dared to use my own voice in this work.

As in my drawing above there are some strong diagonals and enough foreground interest to keep the viewer’s eye moving around the drawing.

Plaza de las Armas, Rancagua. Soft pastel and charcoal on cream tinted Fabriano Tiziano paper (160g)

My final selection for this assignment was from my studies of the main bus terminal – this drawing was from a sketch and photo taken around midday with bright sunshine on the building and vehicles. This was reflected in my use of lighter overall tones and some harsh dark shadows.

Terminal O’Higgins, Rancagua. Soft pastel and charcoal on grey tinted Fabriano Tiziano paper (160g)


Part 5 – The personal project

Artist´s Statement

Combine line, space and form to create depth, movement and atmosphere in the urban landscape exploring a wide range of media to include graphite, charcoal, pastel, ink, markers, crayons, water-based paints, and collage.

The final work will be a series of up to 5 urban landscapes in a chosen media or use of mixed media.

My interest during the course has been with the use of line in an expressive way and in a wide range of media. My work for Part 3 outdoors – the urban landscape – was an element of the course which I enjoyed, and this is the area of my work that I wish to develop further in Part 5.

During the course I have been criticised for overusing line – compensating for a lack of tone to create form, and for lacking tonal contrast in my work. Another weakness has been in my poor use of sketchbooks and coherent pathway to my final drawings.
I start Part 5 full of ideas and will build upon my strengths, practice and work on my weaknesses, and harness the power of influences from a wide range of inspirational artists such as: Gerhart Richter, Julie Mehretu, Leon Kossoff, David Bomberg, Frank Auerbach, Dennis Creffield and John Virtue among others.

My priority for Part 5 will therefore be to explore and practice the various approaches, styles and techniques of these artists working in the urban environment. Then utilise this research and practice to make sketches/drawings outdoors:

In the marketplace, bus station, cemetery, and main square (‘Plaza de los Heroes’) of my current home city – Rancagua, Chile.

These places are busy bustling places, but also include places with a link to the past and local history – the ‘Plaza de los Heroes’ an important battle site, and the more quiet, tranquil cemetery.

The work of Frank Auerbach, Leon Kossoff, Dennis Creffield and John Virtue all involved close observation of their subjects by sketchbook drawings in the street – sometimes hundreds of drawings as in the case of John Virtue’s series of London Paintings.

As in Part 3, I have an interest in the movement of people and traffic, change in the city and a sense of history/culture – I have already found by sketching in the street that photos cannot be used to achieve the mark-making that I want to represent movement of people and vehicles. I will therefore need to brave the street in the making of my final drawings. The area where I live is nearly always blessed with clear blue sky and bright sunlight – not the bustling fast moving, stormy clouds as in John Virtues or Constables landscapes – so I intend to eliminate the sky wherever possible or use the pale blue as a base colour to my work.

Intentionality was an area that I researched in my study of Margaret Davison’s book, Contemporary Drawing. I want to ensure that my final works for this Part also fully take into account intentional use of surface, mark, space, materials, scale and composition.


Part 4 Assignment – Tutor feedback

Reflection on tutor feedback – Part 4

Overall Comments
Thank you for sending me your work Roger, you have produced a good range of
studies that demonstrate your continued interest in exploring different drawing
techniques. Some of your figure studies would benefit from a little more attention to
form and your sketchbook and learning log could be developed further to support your project exercises.

Many of my studies do rely on line and I am aware that I must use sketchbooks and learning log more rigorously to develop my work, not just support it – to build up the journey, experiment, and reinforce the learning before arriving at a final drawing or series of drawings. This will be a challenge and my overall goal in Part 5

Demonstration of technical and Visual Skills, Quality of Outcome, Demonstration of Creativity
P.2 Ex 1 Charcoal Study.
Well executed with regard to the manipulation of materials – the balance of soft shading
and a fragmented line gives it a subtle sense of movement. There are inaccuracies –
the legs are too short and you have struggled with foreshortening (bended knee) but
the sensitivity of features works well. I particularly like the subtle shading of the torso
and where this meets the fabric of the sofa. It would be good to see this technique
employed alongside more rigorous observation of form.

I am not sure that I fully understand what is meant by a more rigorous observation of form, but believe that the following longer study addresses in part this issue

P.2 Ex 2 A longer study
Again, your technique is confident and on the whole this is a more accurately
described figure although you have struggled a little with the arms/wrists and feet.
Overall, an engaging study that describes the figure with sensitivity. Well balanced

I agree that I struggled with the details in this study due to lack of practice and in depth study of the individual parts of the body such as hands and feet. The issue of the arms is related to me not measuring the torso. A recent visit to the Tate to see the All Too Human exhibition was especially relevant in the work of William Coldstream and Euan Uglow who rigorously controlled and measured every aspect of their figure/portrait works. They even left the measurement marks in their final paintings – I will make some additional studies measuring more accurately as I develop the drawing

P.3 Ex 1 Basic shapes – seated model
Aspects that work well are the upper body – the face and hair are very well described
with a sensitive handling of the medium. You are struggling to describe legs with
accuracy – they don’t quite look in proportion – the lower leg is perhaps a little too short,
and the position of the raised knee isn’t quite convincing in terms of how it is attached
to the hip. I appreciate this angle would have been difficult to describe and it is a good
attempt. Keep making quick studies – really looking carefully at the form.

I was very careful in the making of this drawing and agree with the comments which again were due to insufficient practice with the figure at this stage. I will have to continue with these studies alongside other work to improve my overall observational skills – it is also something that I thoroughly enjoyed! Another issue is that I could perhaps have controlled the pose better to ensure that it was less difficult to draw or at least easier to represent in a drawing/painting format

P.3 Ex 2 Essential elements – oil pastel
These quick studies are more convincing – I particular like the one on the left. This is
an elegant study with a confident and economical use of line and tone to suggest form.

P.3 Ex 3 Stance
Two well executed studies with a convincing sense of movement. The female nude
works particularly well, again with a confident balance of line and tone. Your slightly
textured mark is effectively describing the darker tones.

The above studies were made freely using YouTube for my source material – whilst not ideal it does allow for unlimited access to a model at any time of day

Your gouache pieces are fine as quick studies but it would be good to see you
exploring this medium further, allowing more areas of space and introducing greater
contrast – as you do with your charcoal studies.

Gouache is a medium that I intend to explore more in Part 5 and in the future

P.4 Ex 2 male nude standing
Expressive use of mark making to suggest tone and texture. Some inaccuracies – the
legs are rather narrow and short and the head is rather small.
P. 6 Ex 2 self portrait
A sensitively executed study in which you allow the watercolour to retain its
translucency. The shadow across the cheek and forehead is very effective, as are the
eyes and glasses. A little more definition and contrast to separate the neck from the
chin would have been beneficial but overall, a confident study.

Watercolour is a medium that I enjoy and would like to use more – perhaps there will be opportunities in POP1

Final pieces
Seated self portraits
The strongest of these is the second attempt. Here you allow the collage and layering
of gesso to add texture and you use line sparingly but expressively to describe the
form. This use of materials is ambitious but sensitive and you have known when to
hold back from overworking. The line has an active, energetic quality that works well.
Because your first attempt is more direct in terms of the mark making, the inaccuracies
of form are more apparent. You have struggled to describe proportions in a number of
your pieces and again, the upper body and head are the strongest aspect of the
drawing, while the legs let it down a little.
However, it is good to see you expanding your scale and being expensive with your
use of line.

In these studies I may have struggled with the leg measurements because my legs straddled two large mirrors making it difficult to maintain continuity.  It would have been better to have enlisted a model! I intend to make some further studies using a model and much tighter measuring

Reclining model
This is the least successful of your final pieces. There is potential here – the use of an
eraser to add bold highlights and the slightly angular use of line to suggest form. It is
also interesting to see such dark tones. However, the overall feeling is that it is
overworked and that the figure is not quite convincing. The legs are again too short
and there isn’t a real sense of her being in that space and seated on the sofa. You
perhaps struggled to suggest shadows because there are so many dark tones
everywhere in the piece. This technique is challenging because you are essentially
working with darkness and then adding light – which can mean more darker tones are
left than might have been if you had built up the drawing starting with light. And the
slight dulling effect that can happing when there is a lot of rubbing on the paper can be
a problem. Try making another drawing using this technique but don’t cover the whole
page with dark tones – leave some areas paler and mid tone. This will allow you to
erase some areas and build up others, creating a more interesting dynamic.

I will complete another drawing as suggested and will post it as soon as possible

Self portrait
A much smaller and quicker study but more effective than the previous piece. An
animated quality of line adds movement and the intense use of tone works well to
suggest depth. It feels a little restricted by the scale – it would be good to see to make a
larger head study employing similar techniques but perhaps allow a little more of the
white of the paper to shine through. As I say, the depth of tone works well but your
work is generally more effective when there is a little more sensitivity ( seated portrait
2, essential elements, female nude).

In this drawing my aim was to work freer and develop a style that I enjoy (also it is a style I wanted to explore more fully in Part 4) I will however take note of my need to describe form more effectively and look for opportunities to incorporate sensitivity

As will be apparent from my feedback, your strengths lie in your ability to manipulate materials and your expressive mark making, whereas weaknesses are apparent in your ability to describe form – though there are times when you do this quite well. It is a very challenging project that relies heavily on observational drawing skills – no one finds figure drawing easy. So well done for pushing yourself to make more ambitious pieces of work and for continuing to explore a range of drawing techniques.

I need to understand better where I am going wrong in my ability to describe form – this is something that I do not fully understand

Demonstration of technical and Visual Skills, Demonstration of Creativity
Your simple line drawings work well, as do your series of self portraits in a range of
media. Your feet and hand studies are convincing. You seem more confident describing
aspects of the figure but struggle with overall proportions. More quick sketches of
figures would have helped you with this.
For your final assignment, you will need to work very rigorously in your sketchbook to
help you work through ideas for compositions and to make experimental studies. Your
sketchbooks will be an important part of your assessment submission.

I worked hard with Part 4 to complete it in a set timeframe which meant that I did cut corners – this was apparent in some of the work submitted. In Part 5 I intend to make everything sketchbook/research led and also not rush through it.

Learning Logs or Blogs/Critical essays
Your research into the self portrait is rather limited and you offer very few reflections
about the work you have looked at – instead you make a few descriptive and/or
biographical points. You have a little more to say about texts you have read and it is
good to see you have visited some exhibitions but overall, your learning log would
benefit from more analysis and reflection. Try asking more questions. For instance, you
make this comment – Whilst studying in Part 4, I was impressed by the wonderful
pencil sketches made by Corot – This a good example of foreground, middleground
and background. Could you say more about how he conveyed this sense of space?
What aspect of technique and composition made you think it was a good example?
If you are struggling to find time to look at a lot of different artists, it might be more
useful to look at a few but to go into more depth. There is a sense (particularly with the
self portrait research) that you were wanting to reference a number of artists and post
images of their work but without really discussing it. For your final assignment, do try to
be more rigorous with your research and use it to support and enhance your project.

My limited research for Part 4 was very transparent and obviously did not support my work.  This will definitely be improved in Part 5 where I intend to use research and sketchbook work to lead me to my final pieces. In a recent video Brian Eccleshall discusses many interesting points regarding the learning process. It is very easy to look at the end result required by exercises/assignments as the most important element within the course, however more important is the journey and the process – and the documentation/reflection of that journey/process – something always highlighted by tutors and something that I have not really focussed on. Brian also talks about an exercise he gives students to force the journey – by setting an exercise of making 20 drawings of a subject (Experimental Drawing calls for 50 drawings in 4 hours). I intend to use this advice and guidance within Part 5

Suggested reading/viewing
Look at a wide range of artists from the past and present. Some suggestions: Lucien
Freud, David Hockney, Alberto Giacometti, Paul Noble, Julie Mehretu, Dryden
Goodwin, Kate Atkin, Gemma Anderson. Look at how these artists employ technique in
relation to subject matter and make observations in your learning log.

I will check out the artists new to me in the above list and revisit those I have already studied, in addition to reviewing the websites suggested below

Also look at The Drawing Room, a platform for contemporary drawing –
And the Rabley drawing centre –

Pointers for the next assignment
This assignment gives you the opportunity to reflect on what you have learned
throughout this course and consider the ways of working that have been the most
rewarding. I expect you will enjoy the process of consolidating and perhaps
reinterpreting subject matter and technique. Go with your instinct and what you find
interesting as well as challenging and don’t be afraid to experiment.